AND AFFECT pg 425
Once we learn how to do something, why
do we continue doing it? “MOTIVATION”! An internal state, that drives us to action, pushes us in a particular direction and keeps
us engaged in certain activities.
EFECTS OF MOTIVATION pg 426
Motivation effects learning and performance
in at least four ways:
increases an individual’s energy and activity level
directs an individual toward certain activities
promotes initiation of certain activities
affects the learning strategies and cognitive processes an individual employ
VERSUS INTRINSIC MOTIVATION pg 427
Extrinsic motivation exists when the source
of motivation lies outside of the individual and the task being performed.
I file an income tax return every
year partly because I usually get a refund when I do so and partly because I will be fined if I don’t file. You give your house a through cleaning when
preparing to host a party because you would hate for your friends to discover you are a slob. You come to class and do home
work for this course because you want to receive a good grade.
In contrast, Intrinsic motivation exists
when the source of motivation lies within the individual and task.
The individual finds the task enjoyable
or worthwhile in and of itself. Example:
I frequently read books and articles about human learning because they continue
to shed new light on a topic that is, to me, fascinating. I watch basketball
games on television because I enjoy the competition and as I view the games I eat junk food because it tastes good.
AND ADVANTAGES OF EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION?
of Extrinsic motivation: Although it promotes learning,
extrinsically motivated students are likely to exert only minimal effort to achieve success (occasionally this may
mean copying someone else’s work) and they may stop whatever the activity is as soon as the reward disappears.
of Intrinsic motivation: Is more enduring and has numerous advantages over extrinsic
motivation. For any particular task, intrinsically motivated learners are more
- Pursue the task on their own initiative, without having to be prodded.
- Be cognitively engaged in the task by keeping attention focused on it.
- Undertake more challenging aspect of the task.
- Learning information in a meaningful rather than a rote fashion.
- Persist in the face of failure.
- Experience pleasure, sometimes even exhilaration, in what they are doing.
- Seek out additional opportunities to pursue the task.
- Achieve at high levels.
THEORY AND INCENTIVES pg 429
A drive is an internal state of need within
an individual. When one is motivated by
a drive, it could be said that something
necessary for optimal functioning is missing (e.g. food, water, warmth, or rest).
Incentive motivation can be viewed as the
reward one receives at the conclusion of an activity.
HIERARCHY OF NEEDS pg 432
Abraham Maslow proposed five different
needs that motivate individuals.
And since we have been talking about Motivation,
Drive and Incentives, it is important to know that Maslow believed that a satisfied need is no longer a motivator of behavior.
needs: People are motivated to satisfy needs related to their physical survival.
needs: People have a need to feel safe and secure in their environment.
and belongingness needs: People seek affectionate relationships with others and
like to feel that they “belong” and are accepted as part of a group.
needs: People need to feel good about one self and to believe that others also
feel positively about them.
for self actualization: People have a need to develop and become all they are
capable of becoming.
Maslow proposed that the five sets of needs
form a hierarchy, beginning with the lowest needs being met first and then progressing up the hierarchy to higher needs.
He also believed that if a need is not
met at any stage the individual could not progress on to the next stage until that need was fulfilled.
DIFFERENCES IN MOTIVATION pg 437
(What motivates You?)
Up to this point, we have been discussing
forms of motivation that might characterize all of us at one time or another. It
may be well to note, that people differ with respect to the kinds of motivation they display.
However, there seems to be at least three motives or needs in particular that most all people display.
Need For Affiliation
Need For Approval
Need For Achievement
the degree to which a person wants and needs friendly relationships with others.
People with high need for affiliation have
a number of characteristics in common. For example:
- They tend to become nervous when other individuals observe their performance
- They spend considerable time communicating with others and their attitudes and opinions
are easily influenced by those around them
- They are more interested in interpersonal relationships than in task accomplishment,
hence when choosing a partner, they are apt to select an incompetent friend over a competent person they don’t particular
people have a strong desire to “look good” to others; in other words, they have a need for approval. For example:
- one student may continually seek teacher recognition for even the smallest accomplishments
in the classroom.
- Another may do everything possible to appear cool in front of his or her peers.
is the need for excellence for its own sake, without regard for any external rewards that one’s accomplishment might
bring. For example:
- A person with a high need for achievement might work diligently to maintain a 4.0 grade
- practice long hours to become a professional
basketball player, or play monopoly with a vengeance.
People with a high need for achievement
are realistic about the tasks they can accomplish, and they persist at tasks that are challenging yet achievable. They are willing and able to delay their gratification: they
put off small, immediate rewards for larger rewards that their long term efforts are likely to bring.
suggest that there are two types of motivations:
1. Motivation For Success
2. Motivation to avoid failure.
Motivation for success is the desire to do well and accomplish goals.
Motivation for avoid failure is anxiety
about failing to accomplish goals and therefore, resulting in inhibition of activities that are likely to result in failure.
For most people one of these needs is stronger
than the other, and achievement behavior depends on which need predominates.
It naturally stand to reasons that people
with Motivation for Success tend to seek and tackle moderately difficult tasks, while those with Motivation for Avoiding Failure
typically forego such risky tasks in favor of a sure thing.
Perhaps the most widely studied form of
affect, at least within the context of human learning, is Anxiety.
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ANXIETY AND FEAR?
Anxiety and Fear are related concepts,
but with a distinct differences.
ANXIETY is a feeling of uneasiness and
apprehension about a situation, typically one with an uncertain outcome.
FEAR is a response to a specific threat,
whereas anxiety is vague and relatively unfocused.
For example, people are afraid of certain things, but they don’t always know exactly what they’re anxious about.
Anxiety has two components: WORRY and EMOTIONALITY
is the cognitive aspect of anxiety, which includes troubling thoughts and beliefs about one’s ability to deal with a
Emotionality is the affective aspect of
anxiety, which includes such physiological responses as muscular tension, increased heartbeat, and perspiration and such behavioral
responses as restlessness and pacing.
OF ANXIETY ON LEARNING AND PERFORMANCE pg 444
Psychologists use the term arousal to refer
to the level of internal energy a person is currently experiencing. People experiencing
low levels of arousal are relaxed, perhaps even asleep. People experiencing high
levels of arousal are highly energized. perhaps to the point of being excessively anxious.
Arousal affects learning and performance
in a curvilinear fashion. More specifically, a small degree or arousal facilitates
learning and performance. A high degree of arousal may facilitate learning and
performance when the task is easy but is likely to interfere when the task is more difficult.
Motivation is an internal state that arouses
us to action, pushes us in particular directions, and keeps us engaged in certain activities.
Intrinsic motivation is ultimately more beneficial than extrinsic motivation; for example, intrinsic motivated individuals
do things on their own initiative, whereas extrinsic motivation is driven by external rewards.
Related to motivation is the concept of
affect ---- the feelings and emotions that an individual brings to bear on a task. Affect influences learning.
Anxiety is a form of affect that facilitates
learning or performance on easy tasks, but interfere with performance or learning on difficult tasks.
Theorists and researchers offer numerous
suggestions for promoting students’ motivation to achieve and succeed in the classroom.
Perhaps the most important suggestion is that teachers should emphasize the intrinsic motivating aspect of school learning
more than the external rewards.