Classical Conditioning is a form of
learning in which a formerly
neutral stimulus is
repeatedly presented with a stimulus that evokes a specific reflexive response. After repeated pairing, the neutral stimulus elicits a response similar to the reflexive response
There are some terms that should be clarified to understand Pavlovs Classic
Conditioning. Page 32
Neutral Stimulus: a stimulus to which
organism does not respond.
Unconditioned Stimulus a stimulus that evokes a response prior to (manipulation)
Conditioned Stimulus: a manipulated
response as a result of repeated systematic association (pairing)
Unconditioned Response: response that occurs absent of manipulation
Conditioned Response: response evoked by a stimulus as a result of repeated, systematic association.
Having been stung by a bee, you might, understandably be frighten, when you
are around bees.
If a bee flies near you, you might scream,
swipe at the bee, or run around like a wild person. You know that you would be better off if you remain calm and perfectly still, but because of previous stings you
cant control yourself.
Your involuntary reaction to this stimulus
(the bee) is an example of learning known as classical
CLASSICAL CONDITION IN HUMANS
Can you give examples
Darkness / SleepCould not stay awake during Astronomy Night
Food / Upset Stomach Creamy Cucumber Salad made me sick
Fear / Failure. Nervous taking Drivers Test
BASIC CONCEPTS IN CLASSIC CONDITIONING
Extinction: Repeatedly presenting
a condition stimulus (ringing the bell) without a unconditioned stimulus (giving the dog meat, or bee sting) will cause the
conditioned response (salivating) to cease. This is a phenomenon Pavlov called extinction.
Spontaneous Recovery: Even though
Pavlov quickly extinguished his dogs conditioned salivation response by repeatedly
presenting the bell in the absence of meat, when he entered the laboratory the
following day he discovered that the bell once again elicited salivation as if extinction never occurred. The reappearance of the salivation response after it had previously been extinguished is called spontaneous
Stimulus Generalization. When individuals
respond to other stimuli in the same way they respond to conditioned stimuli, stimulus
generalization is said to occur. Example
A child who fears an abusive father may generalize that fear to other men but
not to women.
Stimulus Discrimination. When one can differentiate between a positive (CS +) stimulus
as oppose to a negative (CS -) without generalizing the response. Example
Pavlov conditioned a dog to salivate in response to a
high pitched tone, however, the dog would do the same and salivate with a low pitched tone which means that the dog had generalized
the sound and was responding to the sound rather than tone.
To teach the dog stimulus
discrimination, Pavlov repeatedly presented the high pitched tone in conjunction with meat and presented the low pitch
tone without meat. After several such presentations the dog learned to salivate
only to the high tone. (Again,
a child who is abused by her father, but simultaneously has positive interaction with
other adult men, is not likely to
generalize her fear of her father to all other men.
EDUCTIONAL IMPLICATION OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Far the most part we have been discussing learning and behavior as it relates
to animals. So whats the implication or importance of classical conditioning with regard to
ARE THE PRINCIPLES REGARDING LEARNING DIFFERENT FOR HUMANS THAN ANIMALS?
Research Scientist have concluded that
although much of the research was conducted using animals, the same principles apply to humans: Example
Childs early experience with books is enjoyable, he or she is more likely
more frequently in later years.
This generalization from classical conditioning points to the need for a positive classroom climate for students beginning with day one.
IF YOU WERE A TEACHER, HOW MIGHT THIS KNOWLEDGE ASSIST YOU IN YOUR
- Students should experience
academic task in an environment that promotes
pleasant emotions-------feelings of enjoyment, enthusiasm, or excitement.
should never have to associate school with punishment, humiliation,
failure, or frustration.
have often argued that school should be a place where a student
Encounters more success than failure, and classical conditioning
Justification for this argument.