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Chapter 3
Theories of Personality




(Comparing and Contrasting Freud)

Youve heard the saying, "I would like to get into his or her psyche, meaning, I would like to know whats in that persons mind.


Jung used the term "psyche" to refer to all the psychological processes (thoughts) one embraces both conscious and unconscious.

If you recall, for Freud, libido consist of the sexual drive, whereas Jung used the term in a more generalized fashion as an undifferentiated energy that moves the person forward.

To Freud, the Ego is the executor of ones personality; for Jung Ego is ones conscious perception of self (Here again, youve heard the saying "Boy, hes got a big ego) When translated means, the individual thinks of lot of themselves or perhaps is "Stuck on Himself".

Jung describes two basic Attitudes: (as related to personality)

Introversion.(introvert)   and   Extraversion(extrovert)

(quite, shy, hard to get to know)       (loud, outgoing, life of the party)

He also describes four Functions:

Sensation (use of the five senses to deal with facts and reality)

Intuition (looks for relationships and meaning or possibilities about past or future events)

Thinking (use logic and impersonal analysis)

Feeling (concern with personal values, attitudes, and beliefs)

In each person, according to Jung, one of the Attitudes and Functions are dominant and its opposite is weaker. The other functions play a support role. You are either Introversive or Extroversive. WHICH ARE YOU?


Jung compared the conscious aspect of the psyche to an island that rises out of the sea. We notice only the part above the water, even though a much greater land mass, the unconscious, lies below.

The personal unconscious is a land that is not always covered by sea and thus can be reclaimed. It is those perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and memories that have been put aside because our consciousness can only hold a few items at a time. These thought or perceptions can be easily retrieved.

The personal unconscious also include those experiences of an individuals life history that have been repressed or forgotten. These forgotten experiences are accessible to consciousness, however, becoming aware of some them may be a difficult process.

Jung grouped personal unconscious experiences into clusters which he called a complex. A Complex is a group of thoughts, feelings, and memories about a particular concept.

According to Jung, a Complex is said to have constellating power, which mean the complex has the ability to draw new ideas into it and interpret it accordingly.

A complex may be organized around a particular person or object.

One of Jungs example of a Complex concerning motherhood (1954) is as follows:

A mother Complex refers to the cluster of ideas, feelings, and memories that have arisen from our own particular experience of having been mothered. It also draws into it other experiences of mothering to which we have been exposed.


The following is a pictorial illustration of a Mother Complex:




Other mothers

I have known

My own mother My own experience

of being a mother


Other experiences What I have read

of being mothered about mothering








Freuds concept of unconscious forces is limited to personal unconscious. Jungs extend this concept to include what he terms collective unconscious which consist of potential ways of being that all human share.


According to Jung, all people, because we are human have certain things in common. For example:

All human beings live in groups in which roles are assigned. Roles may vary among societies but roles exist.

All human being share certain emotions such as joy, grief, or anger. The ways of expressing emotions may vary but they exist.

All human being develop language and symbols: The words may vary but the concept and symbols are shared.

The workings of the collective unconscious are seen in experiences we have all had, such as falling in love with a "perfect other", feeling overwhelmed by a piece of art or music, or being drawn to the sea, and it expresses itself in shared symbols that have universal meaning.


Unlike Freud and other Theorists, Jung did not outline stages in the process of personality development.

Nor did he believe the early childhood years to be the most important ones, as did Freud.

Jung suggested that the self, is in the process of self realization. He felt that the psychic birth of an individual does not really occur until adolescence.

Although the concept of self- realization was fully described by Jung, it cannot be said to be new with his thoughts. The origin of the principle takes us back to the Greek philosopher Aristole.


Aristole held that everything has a telos (a purpose) or goal, which constitutes its essence and indicates its potential. Thus, every acorn has the essence of Treeness and the potential to become a mighty Oak. In the same way, each one of us has the potential to develop into self, that is, to realize, to fulfill, and enhance our maximum human potential. (If this is true, if everyone has the potential to be all they can be,. have you ever wondered why some individuals never realize their full potential?)



Another component that could lead to self-realization is synchronicity.




Synchronicity is a phenomenon in which events are related to one another through simultaneity and meaning.

In synchronicity, two events occur either at the same time or close in time, and though they happen independently, they seem closely linked. Example

We may dream of a friend whom we have not seen in a long time, and the next day we learn that our friend died the night before. Logic tells us that such synchronistic experiences are merely chance or coincidental. Jung believed that at another level they are significant. Have you had such experiences?

My sister in-law and her sons hunting trip


Carl Jung was born in 1875 in Switzerland where he lived all his life. He was the only surviving son of a poor country pastor. He described his father as conventional and kind, but weak. His mother was a powerful person. Jung felt that she was a good mother but that she suffered from emotional disturbances. He was later to describe her as possessing two personalities, one kind and loving, the other harsh and aloof.

Jung described his childhood as lonely and his personality as introverted. Jung and Freud established an intense personal and professional relationship and at one point Freud regarded Jung as his heir apparent and looked upon him with all the affection that a father has for his son.

On several occasions when Jung disagreed with Freud, Freud became very upset and in a few instances actually fainted. In 1913, Jung broke away from Freud and his school. Freud described the breakup as a "great loss" and it was also shattering for Jung, who entered a period of extensive inner disorientation in which he could not read or write and which eventually led to his self analysis.

Many reason underlay the break with Freud, however, the most pronounced point of disagreement was Jungs rejection of Freuds emphasis on sexuality.

Thereafter, Jung developed his own school of thought, which eventually came to be known as analytical psychology.

Next week we will look at Alfred Adler and Harry Sullivan. Both of these theorist placed greater emphasis on human culture and society as opposed to sexual and biological urges as had Freud and Jung.