Make your own free website on Tripod.com
Home | Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5 | Chapter 6 | Chapter 7 | Chapter 8 | Chapter 9 | Chapter 10 | Chapter 11 | Chapter 12 | Chapter 13 | Chapter 14 | Chapter 15 | Chapter 16 | Chapter 17 | Chapter 18 | Mid term Exam
Chapter 6
PS3313

Enter subhead content here

CHAPTER 6

DEVELOPMENT DURING THE FIRST THREE YEARS

 

PSYCHOSOCIAL

(development of the ego/self, personality, Erik Erikson).

 

“I’m Like a Child trying to do everything, say everything and be everything all at once”.

 

Have you noticed that children want to try and do everything for themselves even when they can’t.  This represent development of self, their ego. (This should not be discouraged, but supported with supervision)

 

PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

( THE FIRST THREE YEARS )

 

WHEN AND HOW DO EMOTIONS DEVELOP?

 

The development and expression of various emotions seem to be tied to brain maturation and cognitive development.

 

Crying, smiling, and laughing are early signs of emotion. Other indications of emotion include facial expression, body language, and physiological changes.

 

Self-conscious and evaluative emotions arise after the development of self-awareness.

 

THREE CATEGORIES OF TEMPERAMENT

 

Children may demonstrate one of three types of temperament:

 

easy children:  generally happy, accepting of new experiences.

 

difficult children: more irritable, harder to please, more intense in expressing emotions.

 

slow to warm up children: mild but slow to adapt to new people and situations.

 

Not all children fit neatly into one of these categories.  There may be a crossing over between categories in some children.   When a parent recognizes that a child acts in a certain way, not out of willful laziness, or stupidity, but largely because of inborn temperament, the parent is less likely to feel guilty, anxious, or hostile when addressing a particular situation.   (WHICH IS YOUR CHILD?)

 

 

HOW STABLE IS TEMPERAMENT?

 

Temperament is not a fixed behavior. Research suggest that with proper stimuli a parent being less “sensitive” or more “intrusive”  may alter a child’s temperament to help him or her overcome tendencies that will make it harder to get along in the world (Park, Belsky, Putnam, & Crnic, 1997).

TEMPERAMENT ACROSS CULTURES

 

Studies have found ethnic differences in temperament. 

 

 

If a Caucasian American newborn’s nose is briefly pressed with a cloth, the baby will normally turn away or swipe at the cloth.

 

Chinese American babies are more likely to open their mouths immediately to restore breathing, without a fight (Freedman & Freedman, 1969).

 

 

WHAT ROLE DO MOTHERS AND FATHERS PLAY IN EARLY PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT?

 

Unlike the phenomenon of imprinting in animals, Mother-Infant Bonding is very important in human development:

 

Imprinting in animals is: An instinctive form of learning in which, during a critical period in early development, a young animal forms an attachment to the first moving object it sees, usually the mother.  In a Classic Study, Konad Lorenz, 1957, waddled, honked, and flapped his arms – and got newborn ducklings to follow him as they would the mother duck.

 

Unlike animals, there does not seem to be a critical period for forming the mother-infant bond in humans.  However, infants do have strong needs for maternal closeness and warmth as well as physical care. 

 

Yet, Child rearing practices and care giving roles vary around the world.  Example: (Infants among the Efe people of Zaire Africa typically receive care from five or more people in a given hour and are routinely breast fed by other women as well as by their own mother).

 

According to Erikson, infants in the first 18 months of life experience the first crisis in personality development, basic trust versus basic mistrust.  Sensitive, responsive and consistent care giving is the key to successful resolution of this crisis.  (small kids will do anything  you ask them to do because they have not developed a fear of what is dangerous.  Falling of the bed,  jumping off high objects, touching hot items, placing items in electrical outlets, etc.).

 

WHEN DOES THE SENSE OF SELF ARISE?

 

The self concept begins to emerge in the following sequence, beginning about 18 months:  (1) physical self-recognition and self-awareness, (2) self-description and self evaluation, and (3) emotional response to wrongdoing.

 

HOW DO PARENTAL EMPLOYMENT AND EARLY CHILD CARE AFFECT INFANT AND TODDLER DEVELOPMENT?

 

Mother’s workforce participation during a child’s first three years seems to have little or no impact on the child’s development.

 

Although quality, quantity, stability, and type of care have some influence on psychosocial and cognitive development, the influence of family characteristics seem greater

 

 

   

 

 

Enter supporting content here