THE FIRST THREE YEARS
Charles Darwin’s Orgin of the Species, looked at what abilities babies are
born with and How they learn about the world.
He studied his own Child to develop his theory on the Nature of Infant’s behavior
= mental process or brain functioning)
Developmental test are sometimes given to infants and toddlers. The developmental
test most widely used is the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.
(Assesses development between 1 month to 3 ½ years).
Although development test are quite often given to infants, they are unreliable in predicting
later IQ. WHY?
Since babies cannot tell us what they know and how they think, the most obvious way to
gauge their intelligence is by assessing what they can do.
But if they do not grasp a rattle, it is hard to tell whether they do not know how, do
not feel like doing it, do not realize what is expected of them, or have simply lost interest. (like the Intro lines at the
beginning of each Chapter).
FROM CHAPTER FOUR
runs my dreams: but what am I? An infant crying in the night; an Infant crying for the light, and with no language but a cry.
( FIRST THREE YEARS )
How would you determine if an infant has normal intelligence?
THREE APROACHES TO MEASUREING INTELLIGENCE
Researchers use Three Approaches to measure intelligent behavior:
approach (studies the basic mechanics of learning. It is concern with how behavior changes in response to experience). Example: when a baby learns how to get his fathers hand into his mouth by moving his
own hand out of the way, he shows intelligence.
approach (seeks to measure individual differences in quantity of intelligence by using intelligence tests. The higher a person scores, the more intelligent she or he is presumed to be.
approach (looks at changes, or stages, in the quality of cognitive functioning.
It is concerned with how the mind structures its activities
and adapts to the environment).
HOW DO BABIES LEARN?
How would you say babies learn?
Babies are born with the ability to learn from what they see, hear, smell, taste, and touch,
and they have at least some ability to remember what they learn.
TWO TYPES OF LEARNING METHODS
Two types of learning that behaviorists have studies are:
conditioning (learning to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that does not require a response, after it is associated
with another stimulus that does require a response) see page 34 text; Ivan Pavlov.
conditioning (learning in which a person tends to repeat a behavior that has been reinforced or cease a behavior that has
been punished) see page 35 text; B.F Skinner.
tests are the primary approach used to determine and measure factors that make up intelligence quotient (IQ). However, to be useful, psychometric tests must have validity and reliability.
Interaction with adults seems to advance cognitive competence. Through guided
participation in play and other shared everyday activities, parents or caregivers help children learn the skills, knowledge,
and values important in their culture.
Clorox Bleach…. Boys Don’t Drink Coke, They drink Juice,
Dry It Up Right Now, Pa Pa! Don’t
Say that Pa Pa. (Ku Ru)
The acquisition of language is an important aspect of cognitive development. Pre-linguistic
speech includes crying, cooing, babbling, and imitating language sounds.
sounds by 6 months
Use gestures before
they say their first word
First word typically
comes between 10 and 14 months
First sentence comes
between 18 and 24 months
By age 3, sentences
are fairly well developed
Today, most developmentalist hold that the inborn capacity to learn language
may be activated or constrained by experience. (Suggest why we should not us Baby talk)
Influences on language development include brain maturation and social interaction.