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Chapter 5
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CHAPTER 5

 DEVELOPMENT DURING THE FIRST THREE YEARS

 

 

CHAPTER 5

 DEVELOPMENT DURING THE FIRST THREE YEARS

 

Charles Darwin’s Orgin of the Species, looked at what abilities babies are born with and How they learn about the world. 

 

He studied his own Child to develop his theory on the Nature of Infant’s behavior

 

COGNITIVE = mental process or brain functioning)  

 

Developmental test are sometimes given to infants and toddlers. The developmental test most widely used is the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. (Assesses development between 1 month to 3 years).

 

Although development test are quite often given to infants, they are unreliable in predicting later IQ.    WHY?     

 

Since babies cannot tell us what they know and how they think, the most obvious way to gauge their intelligence is by assessing what they can do. 

 

But if they do not grasp a rattle, it is hard to tell whether they do not know how, do not feel like doing it, do not realize what is expected of them, or have simply lost interest. (like the Intro lines at the beginning of each Chapter).                                                                                   

 

 

FROM CHAPTER FOUR

So runs my dreams: but what am I? An infant crying in the night; an Infant crying for the light, and with no language but a cry.                                                                                                       

 

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

( FIRST THREE YEARS )

 

How would you determine if an infant has normal intelligence?

 

THREE APROACHES TO MEASUREING INTELLIGENCE

 

Researchers use Three Approaches to measure intelligent behavior:

 

Behaviorist approach (studies the basic mechanics of learning. It is concern with how behavior changes in response to experience).  Example: when a baby learns how to get his fathers hand into his mouth by moving his own hand out of the way, he shows intelligence.

 

Psychometric approach (seeks to measure individual differences in quantity of intelligence by using intelligence tests.  The higher a person scores, the more intelligent she or he is presumed to be.

 

Piagetian approach (looks at changes, or stages, in the quality of cognitive functioning.  It is concerned with how the mind structures its activities and adapts to the environment).

HOW DO BABIES LEARN?

 

How would you say babies learn?

 

Babies are born with the ability to learn from what they see, hear, smell, taste, and touch, and they have at least some ability to remember what they learn.

 

TWO TYPES OF LEARNING METHODS

 

Two types of learning that behaviorists have studies are:

 

Classical Conditioning

Operant Conditioning

 

Classical conditioning (learning to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that does not require a response, after it is associated with another stimulus that does require a response) see page 34 text; Ivan Pavlov.

 

Operant conditioning (learning in which a person tends to repeat a behavior that has been reinforced or cease a behavior that has been punished) see page 35 text;  B.F Skinner.

 

Psychometric tests are the primary approach used to determine and measure factors that make up intelligence quotient (IQ).  However, to be useful, psychometric tests must have validity and reliability.

 

 

Social Interaction with adults seems to advance cognitive competence.  Through guided participation in play and other shared everyday activities, parents or caregivers help children learn the skills, knowledge, and values important in their culture.

 

Clorox Bleach…. Boys Don’t Drink Coke, They drink Juice,

Dry It Up Right Now, Pa Pa!    Don’t Say that Pa Pa.  (Ku Ru)

 

The acquisition of language is an important aspect of cognitive development. Pre-linguistic speech includes crying, cooing, babbling, and imitating language sounds.

 

Babies can:

 

       Distinguish speech sounds by 6 months

 

       Use gestures before they say their first word

 

       First word typically comes between 10 and 14 months

 

       First sentence comes between 18 and 24 months

 

       By age 3, sentences are fairly well developed

 

Today, most developmentalist hold that the inborn capacity to learn language may be activated or constrained by experience.  (Suggest why we should not us Baby talk)

 

Influences on language development include brain maturation and social interaction. f     

 

 

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