THREE STAGES OF PARENTAL DEVELOPMENT
Once conception is completed, parental development proceed through three stages:
germinal stage (1st two weeks) Rapid
embryonic stage (2nd to 8 week)
major body parts development
fetal stage (8 week to
Acknowledging the continuing arguments set forth by Pro Life and Pro Choice activists. In your opinion
At What point during the three stages above would you say there
is a Baby?
WHAT CAN FETUSES DO?
They breathe, kick, turn, flex their bodies, do somersaults, squint, swallow amniotic fluid
which contains substances from the mother’s body which stimulate taste and smell.
We know these things because fetal activity can be observed by physicians utilizing ultrasound.
Like ultrasound, other test that monitor fetal activity include:
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
Umbilical cord sampling
Maternal blood tests
If a problem is discovered, some abnormal conditions can be corrected through fetal
therapy. Fetal therapy can include administering medicine, performing blood
transfusion; perform Surgery or Bone Marrow replacement.
WHY IS A MOTHER’S ACTIVITY PRIOR
TO BIRTH IMPORTANT?
A baby’s prenatal environment is the mother’s body; everything impinging on her well being,
from diet to her moods, may effect the child’s growth.
Nutrition: Mother should gain
22 – 46 lbs. during pregnancy. If malnutrition occurs it could mean long
term negative effects. Obviously Drugs, Alcohol, Nicotine, Caffeine, Marijuana,
and Cocaine can have adverse effect on baby.
SOME MAY SAY THESE THINGS ARE NOT TRUE BECAUSE I DID THEM WHEN
I WAS PREGNANT AND NOTHING HAPPEN TO MY CHILD
TERATOGENIC INVOLVEMENT (birth defect-producing activities) is not equally risky for all fetuses.
Because Fetuses are able to hear, exercise sensory discrimination, learn, and remember, a mother’s
activity is extremely important. (Have you heard of playing music for babies
in the womb to set different moods for the fetus).
WHAT CAUSES MULTIPLE BIRTHS?
Twins births can occur either by the fertilization of two ova (or one ovum that has split) or
by the splitting of one fertilized ovum. Large multiple births results from either
one of these processes or a combination of the two.
IDENTICAL VERSUS FRATERNAL TWINS
Two Ovum causes Fraternal Twins
One Ovum splitting causes Identical
HOW DOES HEREDITY OPERATE IN DETERMINING SEX AND TRANSMITTING
NORMAL AND ABNORMAL TRAITS?
The basic unit of heredity is the gene, which is made of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA carries the biochemical instructions that govern bodily functions and determine
inherited characteristics. Each gene seems to be located by function in a definite
position on a Chromosome.
In some societies, a woman’s failure to produce sons is justification for divorce. Do you think
this is fair? Why?
At conception, each normal human being receives 23 chromosomes from the mother
and 23 from the father.
This forms 23 pairs of chromosomes 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes. A child who receives an X chromosome from each parent will be a female.
If the child receives a Y chromosome from the father, a male will be conceived. (Consequently,
the father determines the sex of a child)
Chromosomal disorders are rare, but when it occurs, it causes disorders such as Klinefelter, Turner,
and Down Syndrome, (see table 3.3 text).
Klinefelter Syndrome is caused
by an extra sex chromosome (shown by the pattern XXY)
Turner Syndrome, result from
a missing sex chromosome (XO).
Down syndrome is caused by a mistake in chromosomal
distribution during development of the ovum, sperm, or zygote.
About 1 in every 156 children born in western countries is estimated to have a chromosomal abnormality.
Genetic Counseling: can help prospective parents assess their risk of
bearing children with genetic or chromosomal defects. People who have already
had a child with a genetic defect, who have family history of hereditary illness, who suffer from conditions known or suspected
to be inherited, are at a higher risk of passing on genes for certain diseases can get information about their likelihood
of producing affected children.
Geneticists have made great contributions to avoid birth defects. Today
researchers have identified genes that contribute to many serious diseases and disorders.
Genetic Testing is likely to be used to a greater extend in the future
COMPLICATIONS AT CHILDBIRTH
What are the leading complications at birth?
Birth trauma injury sustained
at the time of birth
Low birth weight (less than
3 ½ pound). Low birth weight is
the seconding leading cause of death in infancy.
DEATH DURING INFANCY
One of the most tragic losses is the death of an infant.
In Your Opinion, Has the Infant Death rate gotten better or worse?
In the United States, the infant mortality rate, the percentage of babies who die within
the first year is the lowest ever.
In 1998, there were 7.2 deaths in the first year for every 1,000 births
This compares with 20 deaths per 1,000 birth in 1970
(a 63.5% improvement rate).
Improvements are especially dramatic in the developing regions of Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast
Asia, where the threat of early death from such causes as birth complications, neonatal disorders, diarrhea, respiratory problems
and vaccine-preventable disease remains the greatest (Wegman, 1999).
During this chapter we have discussed Conception, Stages of Parental Development, Chromosomal Abnormalities,
Genetic Counseling, Complications at Birth, and Death During Infancy.
However, the most devastating occurrence in child birth is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS).
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is
a cluster of abnormalities shown in children whose mother drank during pregnancy (I hope you read the prologue at the
beginning of the Chapter about Abel Dorris the young adopted Sioux Indian
WHY IS FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME SO DEVASTATING?
The first environment the Zygote or Embryo encounters is the Mothers Body
Food, air, nutrients, etc.
are provided by the mother in the womb. The mother also passes on her genes
to the newborn.
Because of alcohol, it is said that FAS is a leading cause of mental retardation
in new births.
WHAT’S THE MORAL OR LESSON TO BE LEARNED FROM THIS INFORMATION?
If you are a Mother to Be, an Expectant Mother or have Children
who are pregnant, Please encourage them to refrain from Drinking, Smoking, Taking illegal drugs or exposing the baby to dangerous
THE EFFECTS CAN BE DEVASTING AND LONG LASTING!