Make your own free website on Tripod.com
Home | Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5 | Chapter 6 | Chapter 7 | Chapter 8 | Chapter 9 | Chapter 10 | Chapter 11 | Chapter 12 | Chapter 13 | Chapter 14 | Chapter 15 | Chapter 16 | Chapter 17 | Chapter 18 | Mid term Exam
Chapter 3
PS3313

Enter subhead content here

CHAPTER 3

FORMING A NEW LIFE

 

 

HOW DOES CONCEPTION NORMALLY OCCUR?

 

Until it becomes possible to clone a human being, the formation of a new human life will continue to require fertilization, that is the union of an ovum and a sperm.  Fertilization results in the formation of a one-celled zygote, which then duplicates itself by cell division.

 

THREE STAGES OF PARENTAL DEVELOPMENT

 

Once conception is completed, parental development proceed through three stages:

 

germinal stage (1st two weeks)  Rapid cell Division

embryonic stage (2nd  to 8 week) major body parts development

fetal stage (8 week to birth)  

 

Acknowledging the continuing arguments set forth by Pro Life and Pro Choice activists.  In your opinion  

 

 

At What point during the three stages above would you say there is a Baby?

 

 

 

WHAT CAN FETUSES DO?

 

They breathe, kick, turn, flex their bodies, do somersaults, squint, swallow amniotic fluid which contains substances from the mother’s body which stimulate taste and smell.

We know these things because fetal activity can be observed by physicians utilizing ultrasound.

                   

Like ultrasound, other test that monitor fetal activity include:

 

Embryoscopy

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

Umbilical cord sampling

Maternal blood tests

 

If a problem is discovered, some abnormal conditions can be corrected through fetal therapy.  Fetal therapy can include administering medicine, performing blood transfusion; perform Surgery or Bone Marrow replacement.

 

 WHY IS A MOTHER’S ACTIVITY PRIOR TO BIRTH IMPORTANT?

 

A baby’s prenatal environment is the mother’s body; everything impinging on her well being, from diet to her moods, may effect the child’s growth.

 

Nutrition: Mother should gain 22 – 46 lbs. during pregnancy.  If malnutrition occurs it could mean long term negative effects.  Obviously Drugs, Alcohol, Nicotine, Caffeine, Marijuana, and Cocaine can have adverse effect on baby.

 

SOME MAY SAY THESE THINGS ARE NOT TRUE BECAUSE I DID THEM WHEN I WAS PREGNANT AND NOTHING HAPPEN TO MY CHILD

 

TERATOGENIC INVOLVEMENT (birth defect-producing activities) is not equally risky for all fetuses.

 

Because Fetuses are able to hear, exercise sensory discrimination, learn, and remember, a mother’s activity is extremely important.  (Have you heard of playing music for babies in the womb to set different moods for the fetus).

 

 

 

WHAT CAUSES MULTIPLE BIRTHS?

 

Twins births can occur either by the fertilization of two ova (or one ovum that has split) or by the splitting of one fertilized ovum.  Large multiple births results from either one of these processes or a combination of the two.

 

 

IDENTICAL VERSUS FRATERNAL TWINS

 

Two Ovum causes Fraternal Twins

One Ovum splitting causes Identical Twins

 

 

HOW DOES HEREDITY OPERATE IN DETERMINING SEX AND TRANSMITTING NORMAL AND ABNORMAL TRAITS?

 

 

The basic unit of heredity is the gene, which is made of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).  DNA carries the biochemical instructions that govern bodily functions and determine inherited characteristics.  Each gene seems to be located by function in a definite position on a Chromosome.

In some societies, a woman’s failure to produce sons is justification for divorce. Do you think this is fair? Why?

 

At conception, each normal human being receives 23 chromosomes from the mother and 23 from the father. 

 

This forms 23 pairs of chromosomes 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes.  A child who receives an X chromosome from each parent will be a female.

 

If the child receives a Y chromosome from the father, a male will be conceived. (Consequently, the father determines the sex of a child)

 

CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES

 

Chromosomal disorders are rare, but when it occurs, it causes disorders such as Klinefelter, Turner, and Down Syndrome,  (see table 3.3 text).

Klinefelter Syndrome is caused by an extra sex chromosome (shown by the pattern XXY)

 

Turner Syndrome, result from a missing sex chromosome (XO). 

 

Down syndrome  is caused by a mistake in chromosomal distribution during development of the ovum, sperm, or zygote.

 

About 1 in every 156 children born in western countries is estimated to have a chromosomal abnormality.

GENETIC COUNSELING

 

Genetic Counseling: can help prospective parents assess their risk of bearing children with genetic or chromosomal defects.  People who have already had a child with a genetic defect, who have family history of hereditary illness, who suffer from conditions known or suspected to be inherited, are at a higher risk of passing on genes for certain diseases can get information about their likelihood of producing affected children.

 

Geneticists have made great contributions to avoid birth defects.  Today researchers have identified genes that contribute to many serious diseases and disorders.  Genetic Testing is likely to be used to a greater extend in the future

 

COMPLICATIONS AT CHILDBIRTH

 

What are the leading complications at birth?

 

Birth trauma injury sustained at the time of birth

 

Low birth weight (less than 3 pound).  Low birth weight  is the seconding leading cause of death in infancy.

 

DEATH DURING INFANCY

 

One of the most tragic losses is the death of an infant.

 

In Your Opinion, Has the Infant Death rate gotten better or worse?

In the United States, the infant mortality rate, the percentage of babies who die within the first year is the lowest ever.

 

In 1998, there were 7.2 deaths in the first year for every 1,000 births

 

This compares with 20 deaths per 1,000 birth in 1970  (a 63.5% improvement rate).

 

Improvements are especially dramatic in the developing regions of Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, where the threat of early death from such causes as birth complications, neonatal disorders, diarrhea, respiratory problems and vaccine-preventable disease remains the greatest (Wegman, 1999).

 

 

During this chapter we have discussed Conception, Stages of Parental Development, Chromosomal Abnormalities, Genetic Counseling, Complications at Birth, and Death During Infancy. 

 

However, the most devastating occurrence in child birth is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS).

 

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a cluster of abnormalities shown in children whose mother drank during pregnancy (I hope you read the prologue at the beginning of the Chapter  about Abel Dorris the young adopted Sioux Indian boy). 

 

 

WHY IS FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME SO DEVASTATING?

 

The first environment the Zygote or Embryo encounters is the Mothers Body

 

Food, air, nutrients, etc. are provided by the mother in the womb.  The mother also passes on her genes to the newborn. 

 

Because of alcohol, it is said that FAS is a leading cause of mental retardation in new births.

 

 

WHAT’S THE MORAL OR LESSON TO BE LEARNED FROM THIS INFORMATION?

 

If you are a Mother to Be, an Expectant Mother or have Children who are pregnant, Please encourage them to refrain from Drinking, Smoking, Taking illegal drugs or exposing the baby to dangerous substances.

 

 

THE EFFECTS CAN BE DEVASTING AND LONG LASTING!

 

 

 

 

Enter supporting content here